Meaning of Educational Technology
“Technology is more than hardware. Technology consists of the designs and the environment that engage learners”. - D Jonassen
Focus for Questions:
What is educational technology?
How does educational technology differ from technology in education?
How do educational technology, instructional technology and technology integration, educational media related to one another?
The organization of this course on Educational Technology 1 is based on the broad meaning of educational technology. That’s why we start this course with the comprehensive understanding of the term educational technology.
In two minutes, write down anything that comes to mind when you hear the phrase educational technology. (teacher writes them on the board.)
Read what you wrote.
Questions for Discussion
-of the words written on the board, what is most common?
-are there words that are related? If yes, how are they related?
-what conclusion can you draw on what most people think educational technology is?
-is this common concept on educational technology adequate? Defend your answer.
Meaning of Educational Technology
To understand the meaning of educational technology, it may be good to begin with the meaning of technology. The word “technology” comes from the Greek word techne which means craft of art . Based on the etymology of the word “technology”, the term educational technology therefore refers to the art or craft of responding to our educational needs.
Many people think that technology refers only to machines such as computers, tv, videos, and the like. All these form part of technology but technology is all these and more! Technology is not just machines. It is a “planned, systematic method of working to achieve planned outcomes – a process not a product. Technology is the applied side of scientific development .”(Dale,1969)Technology also refers to any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the scientific method.”(http://en.wikipedia.org?wiki/Educational_technology#Perspectives_and_meaning). Technology refers to “all the ways people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their, needs and desires. ” (The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol 19) So, educational technology refers to how people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their educational needs and desires, i.e. learning.
Educational technology is “a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning”. (Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1977. The definitions of educational technology: A summary, In the definition of educational technology, 1-6, Washington D.C.: AECT.)
Educational technology “consists of the designs and environment s that engage learners… and reliable technique or method for engaging learning such as cognitive learning strategies and critical thinking skills.” (David H. Jonassen, et al 1999.)
Educational technology is a theory about how problems in human learning are identified and solved. (David H. Jonassen, Kyle L. Peck, Brent G. Wilson, 1999). As a theory, educational technology has an “integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.”
Educational technology is a field involved in applying a complex, integrated process to analyzed and solved problems in human learning. (David H. Jonassen, et al 1999).
Educational technology is a field study which is concerned with the practice of using educational methods and resources for the ultimate goal of facilitating the learning process. (Lucido and Borabo, 1977). As a field, it operates within the total field of education.
Educational technology is a profession like teaching. It is made up of organized effort to implement the theory, intellectual, technique, and practical application of educational technology. (David H. Jonassen, et al 1999).
From the definitions of educational technology given above, we can say that educational technology is a very broad term. It is the application of scientific findings in our method, process or procedure of working in the field of education in order to effect learning. It embraces curriculum and instructional design, learning environment, theories of teaching-learning. It is also a field study and a profession. It is the use of all human inventions for teachers to realize their mission to teach in order that students learn.
There are other terms that are associated with educational technology. We come across terms like technology in education, instructional technology and technology integration in education books, educational media. Are they synonymous with educational technology?
Technology in education is “ the application of technology to any of those processes involved in operating the institutions which house the educational enterprise. It includes the application of technology to food, health, finance, scheduling, grade, reporting, and other processes with the support education within institutions.” (David H. Jonassen, et al ,1999).
Instructional technology is a part of educational technology. Instructional technology refers to those aspects of educational technology that “are concerned with instruction as contrasted to designs and operations of educational institutions. Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives.” (Lucido and Borabo, 1997).
Technology integration means using “learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills,” (Williams, ed. 2000). Like instructional technology, it is part of educational technology. Technology integration is part and parcel of instructional technology, which in turn is a part of educational technology.
Educational media are channels or avenues or instruments of communication. Examples are books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television and internet. These media also serve educational purposes.
Which of the terms above are very much related to educational technology? Which one is least related?